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Journal of Advanced Ceramics  2016, Vol. 5 Issue (4): 321-328    doi: 10.1007/s40145-016-0205-1
Research Article     
Effects of different backbone binders on the characteristics of zirconia parts using wax-based binder system via ceramic injection molding
Jiaxin WENa,Zhipeng XIEb*,Wenbin CAOa,Xianfeng YANGc
aSchool of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100084, China
bState Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
cCollege of Physics and Electronics Science, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410014, China
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In this work, various backbone binders were used in wax-based binder system to formulate zirconia parts by ceramic injection molding (CIM). The effect of different backbone binders on the molding, debinding, and sintering behaviors was investigated. After blending process, the feedstock using multi-polymer components exhibited more homogeneous structure compared with that using the mono-polymer ones due to the synergistic effect of multi-polymers. During solvent debinding, some defects such as “slumping” and “peeling” appeared in the parts containing ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), but they were not found in the parts with other thermal polymers. Also, as for the parts after sintering, the one using low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) as backbone binders presented a more uniform microstructure with finer zirconia grains among all the investigated compositions, and thus obtained the highest flexural strength (~949 MPa) and relative density (~98.9%).

Key wordsceramic injection molding (CIM)      ZrO2      backbone binders      solvent debinding      sintering     
Received: 19 June 2016      Published: 20 December 2016
Corresponding Authors: Zhipeng XIE   
Cite this article:

Jiaxin WEN,Zhipeng XIE,Wenbin CAO,Xianfeng YANG. Effects of different backbone binders on the characteristics of zirconia parts using wax-based binder system via ceramic injection molding. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2016, 5(4): 321-328.

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Fig. 1 Morphology of zirconia powder observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
TagBackbone binderLubricantSurfactantPlasticizer
Table 1 Composition of the organic binders used (Unit: wt%)
Fig. 2 TGA of (a) binder components and (b) feedstocks with various backbone binders.
Fig. 3 (a) Pycnometric density of feedstocks with various thermal polymers; (b) deviation of density with different thermal polymers.
Fig. 4 (a) As-molded strength and as-leached strength of feedstocks with varieties of polymers; (b) the structural formula of backbone binders utilized [19].
Fig. 5 The defects appeared in the solvent debinding: (a) “slumping” in the part with EVA (E); (b) “peeling” in the part with EVA/HDPE (E/H).
Fig. 6 Scanning electron micrographs of the parts using various thermal polymers after leaching in kerosene at 60 ℃ for 20 h: (a) EVA and HDPE (E/H), (b) LDPE (L), (c) LDPE and HDPE (L/H).
Fig. 7 (a) Volume swelling ratio of LDPE, HDPE, and PP in kerosene at 60 ℃; (b) effect of different backbone binders on weight loss of PW and SA at 60 ℃ for various immersion time.
Backbone binderFlexural strength (MPa)Deviation value (MPa)Relative density (%)Deviation value (%)
LDPE (L)509±12996.5±0.11
HDPE (H)746±23097.4±0.16
PP (P)751±18097.5±0.14
Table 2 Mechanical properties and relative density of the samples sintered from the feedstocks with various thermal polymers
Fig. 8 The as-sintered surfaces of the sintered bodies for the 3Y-TZP with different backbone binders, whose pores originate from debinding: (a) L, (b) H, (c) P, (d) E/H, (e) L/H, (f) H/P.
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